Stochastic Collocation with

B-Spline Combigrids

In this example the mean and variance of an objective function are calculated with B-Spline Stochastic Collocation. The objective function is \( f(x) = x \) on \([a,b] = [-1,3] \) to the unit cube via \(\tilde{f}(x) = a + (b-a) x = 4x-1\). The moments are calculated assuming a normal probability density function is used as a weight function \( w(x)\) in the integration. This means

\(E(f) = \int f(x) w(x) dx \\ V(f) = E(f^2) - E(f)^2 \)

double objectiveFunction(sgpp::base::DataVector const& v) { return 4.0 * v[0] - 1.0; }
int main() {
// set the number of dimensions
size_t numDimensions = 1;
// set the degree of the B spline basis functions
size_t degree = 5;
// set the pointHierarchies (= creation pattern of the grid points) to exponentially growing
// uniformly spaced grid points including the boundary points
// set up the grid function. This function takes full grids as its argument and returns the
// corresponding coefficients for the B spline interpolation
sgpp::combigrid::MultiFunction(objectiveFunction), pointHierarchies, degree);

intialize the probability density functions for our input.

// set up the weight function collection as normally distributed probability density functions
pdf_config.pdfParameters.mean_ = 1.0; // => we should obtain mean = 1.0
pdf_config.pdfParameters.stddev_ = 0.1; // => we should obtain variance = 0.01
pdf_config.pdfParameters.lowerBound_ = -1;
pdf_config.pdfParameters.upperBound_ = 3;
auto probabilityDensityFunction =
sgpp::combigrid::SingleFunction oneDimensionsalWeightFunction =
// prepare the weight functions and the left and right point of their definition interval
// here we use the same weight function in every dimension
sgpp::combigrid::WeightFunctionsCollection weightFunctionsCollection;
for (size_t d = 0; d < numDimensions; d++) {

After that we create a B-Spline stochastic collocation surrogate. We initialize an empty storage that will later contain the coefficients of the B spline interpolation

std::shared_ptr<sgpp::combigrid::AbstractCombigridStorage> storage;

set up the configuration for the B spline Stochastic Collocation

config.pointHierarchies = pointHierarchies;
config.levelManager = std::make_shared<sgpp::combigrid::RegularLevelManager>(); = degree;
config.coefficientStorage = storage;
config.weightFunctions = weightFunctionsCollection;
config.bounds = bounds;
// create the B spline Stochastic Collocation

create a B spline interpolation operation with a regular level manager to create the level structure and calculate the interpolation coefficients

std::shared_ptr<sgpp::combigrid::LevelManager> regularLevelManager(
sgpp::combigrid::FullGridSummationStrategyType auxiliarySummationStrategyType =
bool exploitNesting = false;
auto Operation = std::make_shared<sgpp::combigrid::CombigridMultiOperation>(
pointHierarchies, Evaluators, regularLevelManager, gf, exploitNesting,

Now we can add some levels to the combigrid,

// create a regular level structure of level 1. Because the regularLevelManager is part of the
// above interpolation operation the B spline interpolation coefficients are calculated during the
// level structure creation. These coefficients can then be used for the quadratures that must be
// done for the mean and variance calculations so that the corresponding SLE must not be solved
// again

update the surrogate accordingly

// update the B Spline Stochastic Collocation configuration with the level stucture and the
// interpolation coefficients from the refinement operation
config.levelStructure = Operation->getLevelManager()->getLevelStructure();
config.coefficientStorage = Operation->getStorage();

and calculate mean and variance of the objective function.

double variance = bsc.variance();
double mean = bsc.mean();
std::cout << "# grid points: " << Operation->getLevelManager()->numGridPoints() << std::endl;
std::cout << "mean: " << mean << " variance: " << variance << std::endl;
return 0;